The Holographic Universe. A Definitive Guide To This Controversial Theory

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As scientists continue to make new ground in Quantum Physics they are becoming more and more baffled. The closer they look at ‘matter’ the more ‘nothingness’ they are finding. When they try to observe quantum physics at play it behaves differently – as if it somehow know’s it is being watched.


Bizarre! Yes, but apparently true.

In January 2012 scientists at the GEO 600 gravitational wave detector in Germany made the following claim: They had scientific evidence suggesting that the entire universe is a holographic projection around the Earth.

Sounds crazy? But this is exactly what people thought when they were first told that the Earth was round 500 years ago. Impossible! Well actually not.

When you have eliminated all that is impossible, all that remains is the truth, no matter how improbable – Sherlock Holmes

Holographic Universe
Holographic Universe

The following documentary, narrated by Stephen Davis is the first in a 5 part workshop on this theory. He has compiled eight hours of information to try to help us get our heads around this concept. I have attempted to break them down into this post. This article aims to answer the questions that come to mind when you read the title – I mean, how can our Universe really be a hologram? Many questions went through my own mind as I worked my way through these workshops, and I will be answering them as best as I can. If there is anything that I have not covered please comment below. We can try to make this a truly definitive guide, based on the science that we know so far.

To start us off, let’s look at a quote from Dr. Amit Goswami about the holographic concept. Dr Goswami is The Professor Emeritus in theoretical physics at the University of Oregon.

“This is the only radical thinking that you need to do. But it is so radical, it is so difficult, because our tendency is that the world is already ‘out there,’ independent of my experience. It is not. Quantum Physics has been so clear about it.”

I admit, in 8 hours of workshops I was very sceptical at what I was hearing. So let’s start with what we actually know to be true.

Atoms

When we look at individual atoms on a quantum level, they are mostly empty. The nucleus and electron make up only a fraction, an insignificant amount of the actual volume of an atom. The particles are so tiny, but this is what scientists have been basing their experiments on. The empty space has been ignored, as irrelevant. Maybe the ‘space’ is what they should have been looking at after all. The key here is to accept that matter is not solid after all. It is mostly empty space.

The Double Slit Experiment

The Good Human published a post about the infamous Double slit experiment, which you can find here. It is vital to understand this experiment, as it forms the basis of much of what comes next in this concept.

When we shoot matter, such as a marble at a barrier with two slits, we get two bright streaks on the screen behind in line with the slits, like this…

Double Slit
Double Slit

And when we shoot waves, such as waves of water through a barrier with two slits, one wave becomes two waves on the other side of the barrier. When two waves collide, they interfere with each other, resulting in an interference pattern on the back screen like this…

New Journal of Physics
New Journal of Physics

When we shoot an electron, which we have always considered as a particle, through a barrier with two slits, you would think there would be a pattern on the back screen like the one that particles make – but incredibly, we get an interference pattern.

Therefore, electrons are not just solid particles, but also exist as waves.

Hopefully you are following so far, because this is where it becomes strange.

When we measure, or observe what is actually happening at the 2 slit barrier – in order to see which slit the electron actually goes through – the electron becomes a particle again and makes a particle pattern on the screen behind – like the marbles did.

In the words of Michael Talbot, author of The Holographic Universe, 1991:

There is compelling evidence that the only time quanta (electrons) ever manifests itself as particles is when we are looking at them. When an electron isn’t being looked at, it is always a wave.

So an electron, in it’s natural state is a wave, but it pops out of the wave to become a particle in a specific location when it is being observed. This is known as ‘collapsing the wave function’.

The Field

The Field
The Field

Nick Herbert, a renowned physicist describes the ‘nothingness’ we have previously ignored as a ‘radically ambiguous and ceaselessly flowing quantum soup’.

A way that many scientists choose to describe this soup is as ‘The Field’.

Lynne McTaggart wrote of book of that name. She describes the field as a being full of waves of all possibility, a place, outside of space and time, where all possibilities already exist – not unlike unset jello. We humans can set the jello into our reality by observing.

So we cannot see the field. We cannot measure it. But if we assume that it is there, quantum physicists can make accurate mathematical predictions about the Universe and the way that it behaves. The narrator encourages us to see it like electrical currents or radio waves. We cannot see these things, but we can see the result of them being present.

How is Reality Created from The Field?

Some scientists believe that reality is created from the waves of possibility, in a process similar to the creation process of a hologram.

The narrator gives us the key point again: There is a field that exists of waves of possibilities and contains an infinite number of wave frequencies to create the physical universe that we see. This is where the particles exist as waves until they are observed and pop into a specific physical location.

Holographic Universe
Holographic Universe

What is a Hologram?

Put simply, a hologram is a 3 dimensional image produced from a 2 dimensional pattern of interference – by a beam such as a laser. Michael Talbot describes it as ‘a virtual image, an image that appears to be where it is not’.

We are used to seeing flat pictures with virtual 3D images that pop out when they are angled in the right way. Today holograms are incredibly detailed and lifelike, with new possibilities opening up, like virtual meetings and music performances such as this below.

How Do You Make A Hologram?

There is a 2 step process, which is explained in the video below. First the object is stored on holographic film in wave frequency. A single piece of film can store large number of objects. Then a laser beam is required to make the image pop out in virtual 3 dimensions, using precise wave frequencies for each object stored.

Are We Looking At A Hologram In The World Around Us?

The answer to this question is not quite. Those scientists supporting the holographic concept, say that we are a part of the hologram too.

Again, turning to Michael Talbot for an explanation: It is relatively easy to understand this idea of holism in something that is external to us, like an apple in a hologram. What makes this difficult is that we are not looking at the hologram; we are part of the hologram.

This is not easy to take on board, so let’s hear it in the words of some other scientists:

David Bohm – Despite its apparent solidity, the universe is at heart a phantasm – a gigantic and splendidly detailed hologram.

Dr Jacob D Bekenstein – An astonishing theory called the holographic principle holds that the universe is like a hologram….the physics of black holes – immensely dense concentrations of mass – provides a hint that the principle might be true.

Black Holes

Black Hole
Black Hole

Black Holes have been found to store the information in a 2D format, of everything 2D that has fallen into it. The surface of the black hole keeps the 2S information, that could in theory be used to reconstruct the 3D version of the thing that has fallen inside.

What is Reality?

As the famous quote from Albret Einstein goes: Reality is merely an illusion, albeit a very persistent one. Could he have meant it literally?

Einstein
Einstein

What is being suggested therefore, is that the physical universe is not solid matter but something more like a hologram. It becomes ‘reality’ when we observe it, and collapse the wave function from unlimited possibilities in the field into a holographic image. It looks and feels very real to us!

This is actually not a new concept, Eastern philosophy and religion has been saying this very thing for centuries. The following is taken from Kabbalah: ‘The first aspect of God is all that there really exists; all else is an illusion’.

The Human Brain

Let’s get back to science for a moment, and take a look at some studies that have analysed our brains and the way that they function. We know that we are still learning about how our brains work, and we seem to use only a tiny fraction of the grey matter to go about our every day lives. The following 4 bodies of research have given us fascinating insights into how our brains may actually support the theory that the Universe is a hologram.

Human Brain
Human Brain

Study 1

In the 1920s, scientist Karl Lashley had failed to pinpoint where our memories are stored in the brain. He said that “no matter what portion of a rat‟s brain he removed, he was unable to eradicate its memory of how to perform complex tasks it had learned prior to surgery.”

Karl Pribram a renowned neurosurgeon and neurophysiologist made it his goal to pick up where Lashley had left off. After years of research he came to the conclusion that memories are not encoded in neurons as he had thought – but actually:

“in patterns of nerve impulses that crisscross the entire brain in the same way that patterns of laser light interference crisscross the entire area of a piece of film containing a holographic image. In other words, Pribram believes the brain is itself a hologram” – Michael Talbot

The key quote here is: our brains mathematically construct ‘hard’ reality by relying on input from a frequency domain (the field)

Study 2

In the 1970s neurosurgeon, Dr Benjamin Libbett 1970s performed a series of experiments on his patients. While they were awake, their brains were exposed and their little finger stimulated. Libbett recorded which part of the brain was stimulated by this, and measured the time it took for the brain to receive the message that the finger had been stimulated.

He then reversed the technique and stimulated the brain directly, and measured the time it took for the finger to receive the message.

His results were the exact opposite of what he had hypothesised: When he stimulated the little finger, the patient felt it immediately; and when he stimulated directly on the cortex, there was a delay.

We can explain the results using the holographic concept: When the little finger was stimulated, it took no time to be felt in the brain, because the brain already what was about to happen, since that hologram had already been downloaded, translated into a hologram and projected out.

But, by directly stimulating the brain, it was as though a new hologram was being downloaded to the brain, there was a delay in sending the sensation out to the little finger and back to the brain again.

Study 3

Human Brain
Human Brain

Scientist Dean Radin wired up participants to machines that measured their physiological responses to images randomly chosen by a computer. There would either be calm images or emotive pictures. Surprisingly, the participant’s showed an increase in heart rate and perspiration before the image had even been chosen by the computer.

This suggests that the brain already knew what picture the computer would choose – potentially because it was part of a hologram that had already been downloaded, translated into a hologram and projected out. The body therefore responded to the hologram on the way out – before it was displayed on the screen in front of the eyes. Does this mean that our brains know what is going to happen before we do?

Study 4

A BBC documentary aired in June 2010 involved a patient being given an MRI scan. While in the scanning machine, the individual randomly decides on a button to press – either left or right. Meanwhile the brain is measured to see what activity is happening. Unbelievably, it was found that the brain decided on which button to press 6 seconds before a conscious decision was made by the individual.

It seems that there’s a lot of unconscious brain activity going on that is shaping your decisions, and that your consciousness comes in at a very late stage. It seems that what our experiments reveal is that there’s like a mechanism unfolding, a deterministic mechanism, that leads up to your decision at a later point in time. And that was inevitable. It could only go one way.

This is a little unnerving – it suggests that we are not part of the decision making process, it is already decided before we consciously consider our options.

Professor John Haynes puts it this way: there is….a deterministic mechanism unfolding that leads up to your decision at a later point in time.

Our Senses

Why can we see, hear, feel, taste and touch our reality? When we touch a hologram our hand goes straight through it? How can we get wet in a hologram? (This was a question I asked myself while walking along the beach, halfway through writing this post).

Senses
Senses

This is explained by considering our senses as devices that pick up electrical signals. These signals are sent to our brain and decoded. Then presented as a feeling or an image in our brain.

Think of the way a computer picks up signals from it’s camera, touch screen or mouse. The electrical signals are sent to the central processing unit, and decoded, before being displayed on the screen. The images and events constructed in the visual cortex of our brain are therefore simply the way our brains have decoded the electrical signals and impulses from our eyes and other sensory ‘feelers’.

It is suggested that we are projecting our own reality and then perceiving it.

Underlying our reality is a deeper order of existence, a vast, more primary level of reality that gives birth to all the objects and appearances of our physical world in much the same way that a piece of holographic film gives birth to a hologram – David Bohm

Reality looks concrete to us only because our brains are able to take this holographic blur and convert it into sticks and stones and other familiar objects that make up our world – Michael Talbot

So if the Field is a holographic series of wave frequencies…..and our brain is a hologram the processes some of the frequencies from the field…..what becomes of our reality?

It no longer exists.

Are We All A Part of One Big Hologram?

The scientists that support this theory seem to believe that we are all projecting our own unique version of the hologram. We all have our own version of ‘reality’, which is why we each see the world a little differently. We have a unique, subjective image.

This could make sense when you consider the differing versions of eye witness accounts, or opinions of people who look alike, and especially when you consider some mental disorders, where individuals have a sense of reality that is very different to the’norm’.

In 2011, physicist Thomas Campbell described our reality as a: holographic, 3D total immersion movie, written uniquely for you, downloaded to your brain, translated into the holograms you see and projected out there for you to experience.

Who Is Writing Our Script?

Are we choosing the wave frequencies that we download from the field? Are we choosing our reality, as suggested by theories such as the law of attraction? Are we choosing to suffer, be poor, experience loss?

Director
Director

There is no evidence to answer this question. The most educated guess so far is “CONSCIOUSNESS”. Doctor Amit Swarmi talks about the ‘Director of our personal movie’ below:

“Quantum Physics allows us to see directly that we can make sense of the world only if we base the world on “consciousness.” The world is made of consciousness, the world is consciousness. Consciousness is the ground of being. Quantum physics makes this as clear as daylight, because Quantum Physics says so clearly that science – quantum mathematics, which in our belief is the most fundamental mathematics, the most accurate mathematical description of nature that we have discovered. …..The question still remains paramount: Who is the chooser? And when we see that, we see that the chooser is free. There is freedom of choice. And out of that freedom of choice comes our actual experience……Quantum Physics enables us to see directly that we can make sense of the world only if we base the world on consciousness.”

This is echoed by other scientists:

Dr Fred Wolf – “Quantum Physics says that consciousness is playing a role in the universe. It says that there is a secret underground that seems to be effecting the reality we live in…”

Dr. Satinover – “Quantum mechanics says that there is a spiritual world that makes this choice, that there is another world that is intangible that effects and influences the physical world.”

Dr Ramachandran – “We may be forced to admit that consciousness, like infinity and the particle/wave concepts in quantum mechanics, is a property that cannot be made intuitively straightforward. Consciousness – like gravity, mass, and charge – may be one of the irreducible properties of the universe for which no further account is possible.”

So What Exactly Is Consciousness?

If it is consciousness that chooses certain wave frequencies, from the infinite number of possibilities in the Field, then downloads those to a human brain, which in turn translates the frequencies into a holographic 3D total immersion movie by collapsing the wave function, and then projects that movie “out there” for us to experience as our “reality” – what is consciousness?

Consciousness
Consciousness

Darryl Anka attempts to explain here, by channeling an entity called Bashar.

There is a vibrational frequency above physical reality – just beyond physical reality – in which resides what you might refer to as a ‘template’ for physical reality or upon which you construct your physical experience. It is in that template level, just beyond the physical threshold, that the ‘higher self’ exists. So the “higher self’ is like a guiding principle, a governing principle so to speak.

Here are the three levels… The ‘higher self’ conceives; the physical brain receives; the personality mind perceives. That’s all it does. Any idea, any inspiration, any imagination ‘you’ have ever had doesn’t come from the physical mind portion of you; it comes from the ‘higher self’ portion of you through the receiver – the brain – and is translated by the brain into a vibration that the physical mind then perceives as a reflected reality.

Now, this may sound at first somewhat limiting, but in fact it’s very, very freeing, because you can all stop thinking! You can all stop thinking you’re in charge. You can all stop thinking you have to think of everything. You can all stop thinking that you’re the one guiding the ship. You’re not. You are just looking at the road. You’re just experiencing the path.

To break it down – The ‘higher self’ conceives; the physical brain receives; the personality mind perceives.

If this is true, we are not in charge, we are not in control, we are just watching the scenery.

Stephen Davis, the narrater of the workshops describes the conscious ‘chooser’ as the ‘Infinite I’.

He suggests that the Infinite I creates our experiences and we perceive them. We are free to react and respond in any way we choose to. In the words of Shakespeare – All the world‘s a stage, and all the men and women merely players.

Is There One ‘Infinite I’ That Governs The Whole World?

There is no scientific answer to this of course. Some scientists think that one ‘Director’ controls us all. Some think that there is one per player. Or maybe each ‘Infinite I’ has a few individual players, possibly across different parallel universe, planets, earth times. And I guess, if we are thinking this radically, why wouldn’t there be parallel universes? My mind is not open enough to accept this far into the concept, but let’s continue.

Are Other People In Our Hologram Real?

One suggested answer to this question is that everything in your own ‘reality’ has been created just for you to experience. Think of The Truman Show. This is like solipsism – the philosophy that you are the only thing that really exists in this Universe.

Another thought is that we are each players in our own holographic 3D total immersion movie, and we can interact with other virtual players experiencing their immersion movie.

Stephen Davis goes a step further and suggests that the Infinite Is agree to let their players join in experiences with one another – intertwining the scripts. It is true that individual’s often have a different experience of the same incident.

Robert Scheinfeld’s theory on ‘other people’ in your reality is that they serve three main purposes:

1. To reflect something you think or feel about yourself
2. To give you the gift of information or insight
3. To set something in motion to support you

So those people that do not play a critical part in your experience could be considered as ‘extras’ in your movie.

Why Would They Choose Certain Experiences?

Stephen Davis suggests that the ‘Infinite I’ simply wants to see how the players react to various conditions and ‘realities’. It is hard to answer, in the same way that we can’t answer ‘why do surfers want to ride waves’. Our experience of this life is described in Robert Scheinfiled’s model as a game, of 2 parts. In part one we experience limitation and restriction. Part two is the exact opposite.

Part One of ‘The Human Game’

See if you can recognise any of these elements in your own life.

Rule 1. The Players must forget who they really are (a Player) and believe they are something else instead

Rule 2. The Players must believe their holographic experiences are real and what they perceive with their senses is actually happening.

Rule 3. The Players must believe what they encounter ―out there has power over them and the power to affect their lives.

Rule 4. The Players must believe in the judgments of ―good and bad, ―right and wrong, ―better and worse,―good and evil.

Rule 5. The Players must believe there is something ―wrong with the reality they see ―out there that needs to be changed or fixed or improved.

Rule 6. The Players must believe they have the power to create a different reality than what they are experiencing and therefore feel defective and deficient (more limited) when they fail.

Rule 7. The Players must believe they can think their way out of the Human Game by using their mind, or love their way out of it by using their heart.

Rule 8. The Players must believe they can make something happen, and when they fail, blame themselves for not being smarter or better or working harder.

Rule 9. The Players must believe there are goals to be reached or agendas to be satisfied or lessons to be learned.

Rule 10. The Players must believe they, and they alone, are responsible for meeting their own needs and wants, which they have to fight for.

Rule 11. Fear and resistance are the foundations of the First Part of the Human Game, and judgments and their resulting beliefs are the glue that keeps the illusions together.

Rule 12. These illusions must never break down or the Players would see through the Game and it would be over.

Human Game
Human Game

Part Two of ‘The Human Game’

1. The Player knows what it has been calling ―reality is not real at all, but a hologram created by its Infinite I to play the Human Game. This Game is being played by consciousness, in consciousness, and for consciousness; and in fact ―there is no ‘out there‘ out there,‘ no independent objective reality.

2. The Player knows once it has moved into the Second Part, all holograms experienced by the Player will be totally in support of its metamorphosis into a butterfly, rather than toward more limitation and restriction.

3. The Player knows it can never and will never experience anything in any hologram its Infinite I has not created and wanted to experience, and that its Infinite I has written and approved the script being used by anyone else appearing in the Player‘s hologram. No one in the Player‘s hologram can ever do or say anything its Infinite I has not requested.

4. The Player knows its focus changes from thinking to feeling. In the Second Part there is nothing to analyze, dissect, or understand – never any reason to ask ―why? Thinking and studying are now only the result of an inner curiosity to expand one‘s knowledge instead of being required to figure out the world or make a Player ―better‖ or more ―enlightened.

5. The Player switches from assigning power ―”out there” to make a hologram real, to “taking its power back” from it. When holograms appear that cause any kind of discomfort, it is an opportunity to recognize the hologram was in fact not real at all and reclaim that power from it.

6. The Player leaves behind any and all judgment of anyone or anything in any hologram at any time, such as ―good and ―bad, or ―right and ―wrong.

7. The Player knows that since everything is created especially for it by its Infinite I, there is never anything that needs to be fixed or changed or improved in the holograms it experiences. The only thing a Player might want to do is change its own reaction or response to any experience.

8. The Player changes from being ―proactive to being ―reactive.

9. The Player lives from moment to moment, one day at a time. There are no goals, no planning, no targets, no objectives, and no agendas. There is no past and no future – just ―now.

10. The Player develops a deep love and sincere appreciation for its Infinite I, for itself as the Player, and for all the First Part holographic creations, even though at the time of the experience they may have seemed less than joyful. In fact, the Player marvels in awe at the beautiful, perfect, and miraculous job the Player did in the First Part to convince itself it was real, and that the holographic world it saw around it was real.

11. The Player has the ―knowing and the complete trust its Infinite I will take care of all its needs (including money), and there is no reason to worry about anything. The Infinite I would not create a hologram it wanted the Player to experience if it did not also give it everything it needs for that experience.

12. The Player wakes up each day looking forward with curious anticipation to the experiences its Infinite I will create for it that day; and the Player buckles up, relaxes, and enjoys the ride.

Key Concepts of The Human Game

This is all very hard to accept as a possibility. I want to give you the key points to summarise what has been suggested here.

We are created by ‘consciousness/the Infinite I’ as a player in the human game.

The Infinite I decides on the experiences we will have – from wave frequencies in the field.

Wave frequencies are downloaded to our brain.

Our purpose is to have experiences, and feelings in reaction to these experiences.

Other players have their own ‘movies’ that intersect our own.

Each player has complete free will to react and respond.

Nothing and no-one has power over us as a player unless we give that to them through our beliefs.

Each experience is of the present moment. And past or future references are story lines played in the present hologram.

Perception

Dr Lipton says that “Perception controls life… Sometimes your perceptions can be right, and sometimes your perceptions can be wrong… and since perceptions can be wrong, it is more accurate to say that beliefs control biology – what you believe creates your life, on the inside and on the outside.”

Perception
Perception

This can be seen in the effects known as placebo and nocebo – where is we believe that a medicine will heal us, it often does, even if it has no healing properties. It works the same way, if we believe that something is harmful, it can have a negative impact on us, even if it us not harmful after all.

Summary

Stephen Davis concludes by saying: I hope by now it’s clear that it is our fears, our judgments, and our beliefs that are keeping us chained inside the cave. Nothing else.

I’ve tried to give you all the scientific evidence through quantum physics and the recent brain research for why you no longer need to judge your experiences – or anyone or anything in them – since they were all created specifically for you by your own Infinite I as gifts, down to the smallest detail.

There is no reason to say “No” any more to what appears in your holographic 3D total immersion movie, not matter what it is.

Perception
Perception

What do you think? Personally, I feel uncomfortable with this concept that we are players in a Human Game. It feels wrong to accept that everything we see is actually an illusion. Where does that leave us with subjects such as social responsibility? Why bother to recycle, or campaign for injustice if nothing is actually real?

There are some positive aspects though, to living fully in the moment. To letting go of judgements, and opening our minds to all possibilities. To removing limiting beliefs and living in grace, knowing that everything that you need will be provided.

Can your brain accept that our Universe might in fact be a hologram? Can you see yourself as a player being fed a series of wave frequencies that you are projecting as your own personal total immersion movie? Are you writing this article, that my ‘Infinite I’ has guided me to write, because your ‘Infinite I’ has guided you to read it?’

I don’t know if I have got that all straight, after all you still have your own free will, so the Infinite I cannot make you read articles! I can say honestly that this is too big for me to fully digest – but it is fascinating enough to chew for a while! I would love to hear your input on the subject.

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Comments

  1. Yup. Brilliant! I have to agree and I read “The Holographic Universe” it’s a game changer indeed. We have the power in our ourselves to change this reality, start within. REMEMBER WHO YOU REALLY ARE. Everyone should read it.

    1. It is a game changer – you are right! My head is still spinning. Glad you enjoyed it. Do you think there is any truth in it?

  2. Thank you for a most thought provoking article. If you except the theory as an infinate I creating this reality (movie) for you to play out then why would so many infinate I’s choose to have themselves murderdered, abused as children, aborted before birth etc.? An infinate I would have to be conscious at birth or would it reach a conciousness at a certain age in which case, what governs there reality while their conciousness is still dormant? I’m a believer in God and was still able to see a truth in your article that I found to be very comforting and rewarding. Instead of an infinate I, perhaps it is an infinate God. After all, anyone who believes in God accepts the omnipresence, omnipotence and omniscience of God. Try reading your article and replace infinate I with infinate God. Your article has made me understand that when I have faith and trust in his “movie” of my life then I can do as you suggest and enjoy the ride. You are right also about choice. As for all the bad things that happen in our world, God gives us a choice. To pretend that there is no good or bad, right or wrong you would have to a child someone being beaten on the street and be able to convince yourself to ignore it because “it does not exist” as you say. Remember, part of conciousness is “consciense”. We wouldn’t have it if it were not necessary. This is one of those cases where science lends more credence to a higher being. It explains the hologram theory very well as we know a God could only exist in demensions we are unable to see. What happens to the theory of the earths age or anything we deduce about the laws of science? Would we have to scrap all of that? How would mathamatics make sense etc. I look forward to your answers.

    1. Hi Carmen, You make some great points. I had the same thought around witnessing ‘bad things’ – would the feelings we experience through watching something occurring provide an opportunity for us to get involved and learn something? The evidence that we have about the Earth’s age etc is certainly another aspect to try to fit in. I guess the holographic supporters would say that the rocks etc were also no more than a reflection of the hologram we have received from the field. It is a huge subject! Thank you for commenting.

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