It suggests that the Universe has actually existed forever, rather than forming at a single infinitely dense point as the Big Bang theory suggests. They are clear that this is not a complete theory of quantum physics but say that it can work with future paradigms.
Limitations of the Big Bang Theory
As well as the issue mentioned earlier regarding General Relativity not fitting in with this theory, scientists are also completely unable to say what happened before the Big Bang or what caused it.
Dark Matter and Dark Energy
Ali and Das’ research helps to shed light on some fascinating quantum mysteries, including dark matter and dark energy. These terms were coined by scientists to name the majority of matter in the Universe that we can not explain. Matter as we know it makes up a tiny percentage of the universal content, leaving 95% that we have very little understanding about.
Ali and Das believe that a mind blowing substance is present in the universe, known as the Bose-Einstein Condensate. Put simply it is a dilute gas of bosons cooled to an extremely low temperature. This is thought to be the coldest thing in the Universe, close to absolute zero (0 K or −273.15 °C). Under these extreme conditions, the particles behave in a way consistent with macroscopic phenomena.
The wave patterns within this condensate could provide an explanation for the dark energy content. They suggest that massive gravitons could be the matter that make up this condensate.
So this a quantum fluid that they believe fills the ‘space’ in the universe may be composed of theoretical particles known as gravitons. These particles are thought to emit gravity in the same way that protons transmit electromagnetic energy.
Gravity has infinite range and can bind galaxies together, so the gravitons would therefore have zero mass. Gravity also works in space where there is no electrical charge, meaning that gravitons would be neutral in order to operate. They would also only attract particles rather than repel. Here on Earth, the gravitational pull is relatively weak, especially when compared to electromagnetism. For example the electromagnetic pull between two particles exerts more pressure on them than the gravitational pull.
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