What if the Big Bang theory is wrong? – An Introduction To Quantum Gravity
Two scientists Dr Ahmed Farag Ali and Professor Saurya Das have shaken up the world of quantum physics with http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0370269314009381” target=”_blank”>a paper that was published in January 2015. They attempted to combine two fundamental theories which underpin the way that our Universe works. These are Quantum Theory and Einstein’s Theory Of General Relativity.
Quantum theory – This explains the microscopic constituents of nature and the way that they interact.
General Relativity – This deals with gravity, and specifically the curvature of space-time and the way this effects large objects.
Both theories work extremely well in their own domain – the problem is (and it is a huge problem) that they are mutually incompatible. They simply do not work when combined. The rules of quantum mechanics cannot be applied to gravity. Consider for example Stephen Hawkin’s discovery that black holes (which are extremely dense pockets of gravity, so intense that light cannot even escape them) radiate photons. Let me repeat that. Black holes emit particles.
“The Big Bang singularity is the most serious problem of general relativity because the laws of physics appear to break down there,” says Ali.
The scientists did not set out to disprove the Big Bang theory at all. They were looking at building a framework of rules that would incorporate both of these theories. They used work published by Bohm to make quantum ‘corrections’ in equations put together by Raychaudhuri (which describes the motion of nearby particles of matter). We will briefly quote the two bodies of work that they used here.
In this paper we systematically develop an ontology that is consistent with the quantum theory. We start with the causal interpretation of the quantum theory, which assumes that the electron is a particle always accompanied by a wave satisfying Schrodinger’s equation. This wave determines a quantum potential, which has several qualitatively new features, that account for the difference between classical theory and quantum theory.
Raychaudhuri equations play important roles to describe the gravitational focusing and space-time singularities. Amal Kumar Raychaudhuri established it in 1955 to describe gravitational focusing properties in cosmology. When the star is heavier than a few solar masses, it could undergo an endless gravitational collapse without achieving any equilibrium state. The final outcome of gravitational collapse of a massive star must necessarily be a black hole which covers the resulting space-time singularity and causal message from the singularity cannot reach the external observer at infinity. In this article Raychaudhuri equations are derived with the help of general relativity and topological properties. An attempt has been taken here to describe gravitational focusing and space-time singularities in some detail with easier mathematical calculations.
When Ali and Das used Bohm’s theories to correct Raychaudhuri’s equations for quantum use, they came up with a Universe that is potentially smaller than we have thought, noting that it that was not infinitely dense.
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